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Bipolar disorder also known as manic depression causes elevated levels of mood and sometimes leads to symptoms of psychosis. It even causes depression that may affect the person’s personal as well as professional life thus causing a disaster. The reasons for this disorder are generally not known but environmental and genetic factors do play a vital role. The environmental factors can be a history of childhood abuse and prone to depression. However genetic factors also have a role in bipolar disorder but in very few cases. The elevated levels of mood are generally characterized as mania or hypomania. It is not just one disease but includes subcategories such as Bipolar I, Bipolar II, Cyclothymia, etc., referred to as Bipolar Spectrum Disorders. So, strict adherence to medications is necessary to help keep episodes to a minimum. The symptoms of mania can be as follows:
- Feeling happy for a very long period
- Decreased sleep
- Easily distracted
- Engaging in risky behaviour, such as having impetuous sex, gambling, or excessive spending.
With the recent advances in Neuroimaging techniques, the biological factors that lead to Bipolar Disorder have been trying to uncover. The Number of abnormalities in amine neurotransmitters and critical signal transduction pathways has been observed in many findings.
Bipolar disorder is associated with the episodes of mood swings that range from manic highs to depressive lows. There are several types of Bipolar disorder and all the type involves both the episodes of mania and depression.
Bipolar I disorder: also known as manic depressive disorder or unipolar disorder. A person suffering from bipolar one must have one manic episode (a few weeks to a few months) in their lifetime. A manic episode is a period of highly or abnormally elevated mood and energy which results in abnormal behaviour. They also suffer from depression episodes that follow shortly after the severe manic episode and lasts for a few days. The manic episodes sometimes trigger a psychotic episode in which an individual lacks its ability to understand reality.
Bipolar II Disorder: In this form of psychiatric disorder, an individual must have depressive episodes followed by hypomanic episode. Hypomania is an episode of elevated mood and behaviour. Though it is not as extreme as a manic episode, it is above the normal mood and behaviour. Bipolar II Disorder is mainly characterized by frequent depressive episodes and associated with a greater risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviour.
Cyclothymia: It is a milder version of bipolar disorder that consists of cyclic mood swings. A person with a cyclothymic episode usually appears normal as they do not undergo any severe manic episode or major depression.
Mixed episodes: In this condition, an individual simultaneously experiences characteristic of both mood poles- depression and mania- in a rapid sequence.
Bipolar Spectrum: In this type of condition, a person experiences the characteristics of bipolar disorder along with the other types of mental disorders that involve depression or mood swings.
Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a multifactorial brain disorder with radical shifts of mood (Manic Depressive Illness). Although it was long known that both environmental and genetic factors play an important role, the cause was not clearly understood. For instance, it has been known that exposure to high levels of stress for a longer period, especially during childhood, is responsible for the development of BD. Also, people with family history of anyone suffering from Bipolar disorder are more likely to develop the condition as compared to others. But now, it has been revealed that which genes need to be blamed. In most cases, no single gene is responsible for bipolar disorder. Some of the candidate genes responsible for bipolar disorder include EGR3, G72/DAOA, DISC1, NRG1, TPH2, BDNF, 5-HTT, DAT1 and many more. With the changing lifestyle and increase in the stressful environment, Bipolar Disorder (BD), along with depression and schizophrenia has become one of the most serious mental illnesses and one of the top 20 causes of severe impairment in everyday life. With the current findings of genes, the exploration has started the role of several of these mutations in BD pathophysiology using in vitro and animal models and is serving as a very promising area in molecular and neuroscience research.
Bipolar Disorder is a mental disorder that causes the extreme change in the moods of an individual from being too excited (manic episode) to a depressed phase with the normal mood states in- between. Many pharmacological and psychotherapeutic techniques are already present for the treatment of the moods of the bipolar disorder, and also today, many researches are going on all around the world for exploring the new possibilities. The treatment commonly includes the psychotherapy (such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) as well as the Medications. Medications are an essential part of the treatment for Bipolar Disorder. This helps to keep the periods or the moods in balance enabling the person to live a normal life. They do not cure the disorder however helps to stabilize the condition. Numbers of medication used to treat Bipolar Disorder. Some of them help to fight the manic episodes and others prevent the episodes of depression. As the medications for bipolar are very powerful drugs, it should always be taken according to the doctor’s recommendation for the given period of time. The abrupt withdraw of medicine without Doctor’s approval can be very dangerous.
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects the person’s ability to think, feel, and behave. This condition is often misdiagnosed as Bipolar Disorder because of the occurrence of periods of psychosis, the hallmark symptom of schizophrenia, which can also be seen in both the manic and depressive phase in Bipolar I disorder and only in depressive phase of Bipolar II Disorder. During the period of psychosis, a person may seem like they have lost touch with reality. They feel delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms and will have disorganized thinking. Schizophrenia symptoms can make it hard for a person to interact with other people, go to school, keep a job, or take care of day-to-day tasks. The symptoms can be very disabling, but with effective treatment many people with schizophrenia experience recovery.
Psychiatry is the branch of medicine that deals with diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders, usually those requiring medication. The various behaviours, moods, cognition and perception which are harmfully adapted included in the mental disorders. The Interdisciplinary field of psychiatric research combines biological, social and psychological perspective of mental disorders in order to understand its nature and treatment. A psychiatrist is trained medical doctors and specialists who deal with these disorders and are qualified to assess both mental and physiological aspects of the psychiatric disorders. As they are physicians, they perform medical laboratory and psychological tests such as case history and mental status examination, evaluate and then work with patients to develop psychiatric treatment plans.
Psychology is the scientific study of human mind and its behaviour and function. Unlike psychiatry and neuroscience, psychology involves the study of awareness and unconsciousness and feelings and thoughts and does not involve medication. Psychologists are the practitioners or researchers who tend to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behaviour, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviours. There are many types of psychology and psychologists such as:
Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the structural and functional study of the human brain and nervous system. It is a combination of evolution, development, cellular and molecular biology, physiology, anatomy and pharmacology and psychology to understand the fundamentals of nervous system and brain. Neuroscience is a discipline where the psychology combines with the biology for the further understanding of the underlying role of the brain in physical, psychological and neurological health conditions. With the advances in the field of medical imaging, it has become one of the most quickly emerging fields in science. The expert researchers are called Neuroscientists who research on the behaviour of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord and nerve cells and develop drugs and treatments for brain and neurological disorders.
Some of the major branches of Neuroscience include:
Mental Health is the psychological, emotional and social condition of somebody who is working at an acceptable level of passionate and behavioural change. It incorporates an individual's capability to understand life and create harmony between standard life exercises and endeavours to accomplish mental flexibility. It is essential at every part of life, starting with childhood and adolescence through adulthood.
Many factors contribute to mental health problems, including:
- Biological factors, such as genes or brain chemistry
- Life experiences, such as trauma or abuse
- Family history of mental health problem
Half of the emotional well-being conditions begin by age fourteen and also the remainder of the conditions produce by age 24. More than 200 sorted types of mental illness conditions are available. Prevention of mental disorder at a youthful age may altogether diminish the hazard that a child will experience the ill effects of it in the later life.
Neuropsychiatry is a hybrid branch of medicine that borderlines the disciplines of psychiatry and neurology. Though psychiatry and neurology have subsequently drifted afar and practiced separately, they have the same origin and common training. The branch of neuropsychiatry works as a bridge between these two fields and helps to understand the relation of brain and mind. Some mental illnesses such as Eating Disorders, Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, etc., have been found to have some neuropathology.
Neurology is a branch of medicine concerning the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system. The brain and the spinal cord makes Central Nervous System (CNS) whereas the Peripheral Nervous System includes all the other neural elements including eyes, ears, skin and the other sensory receptors. A Neurologist is a medical doctor or physician, who specializes in neurology and expertise to investigate, diagnose and treat neurological disorders. Neurology and psychiatry are closely related fields, and for many years they were considered as one branch because neurological disorders can often manifest as, and get misdiagnosed as psychiatric ones. For example, neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and stroke manifest depression and dementia.
Neurocognitive disorders consist of a group of conditions that can be described as a decreased or impaired mental function as a result of a medical illness other than psychological conditions. Earlier, these conditions were named as Organic Brain Syndrome, which is now replaced by the term neurocognitive disorders. There are various causes that lead to neurocognitive disorders, such as:
With the recent global recognition of the importance of mental illnesses, psychiatry has been put firmly on the international health agenda. The World Health Organization has assessed that neuropsychiatric disorders and suicide represent 12.7% of the overall burden of illness. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, alcohol misuse, and obsessive-compulsive disorder account for 5 of the 10 leading causes of disability in underdeveloped and developing countries. In developed countries, dementia is the third most common neurocognitive disorder. Over the past many years the sciences have evolved so well that there are treatment and cure for almost all the disorders and diseases. Innovative treatments of mental health and psychiatric disorders have emerged in both private and public sector due to the expansion in research. Most treatment strategies for psychological illness can be categorized as either somatic (physical) or psychotherapeutic. Somatic treatments include drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and other therapies that stimulate the brain Trans cranial. Psychotherapy, behaviour therapy techniques and hypnotherapy are the treatment methods included in Psychotherapeutic approach.
Clinical psychology is one of the major Speciality area with psychology that carries on-going and inclusive mental and behavioural health care for person’s families, cultures, and varied populations It is a department in breadth — one that is mostly comprehensive of severe psychopathology — and marked by extensiveness and integration of awareness and skill from a comprehensive array of disciplines within and outside of psychology proper. The possibility of clinical psychology includes all ages, several diversities and different systems.
Epilepsy is a very common neurodegenerative disorder that affects the part of brain. When someone having epilepsy, it means they must have a convergence to epileptic seizures. There are different types of seizure. The condition of having seizure depends on the portion of their brain which is affected. During some types of seizure, the person may remain totally aware and conscious about their surroundings and with other types they may lose consciousness. They may have uncommon sensations, feelings or movements. Or they may go unconscious, fall and jerk. The main treatment for epilepsy is epileptic medicines. These are called anti-epileptic drugs or AEDs. The medicine may don’t cure epilepsy, but supports to stop or decrease the number of seizures.
Anxiety can be defined as an overreaction to a situation where it doesn’t need any focus. Anxiety includes uneasiness and worry accompanied by muscular tension, fatigue and lack of concentration. Hence when it gets out of control it is termed as an anxiety disorder. Depression is also considered as one of the symptoms of bipolar disorder. It is a feeling of low mood during activity. It was also found that the increase in social media is the major cause of depression. It includes:
- Feeling sad for a longer period
- Being alone and away from the peer group
- Losing interest in hobbies
- Change in appetite
- Fatigue and low energy levels
- Poor decision making and low confidence levels
- Suicidal thoughts are the major effect
Addiction is a complex chronic disease of mind manifested by compulsive substance use despite harmful consequence. It takes time to develop an addictive disorder. It includes substance abuse and dependence. The biological cause that seems to be responsible for the addictive disorder is related to reward pathways in the brain that provides feeling good chemicals and positive feeling to reward substance abuse. The long term changes during the disorder contribute an inability to consistently abstain, impedance in behavioural control, desiring and lessened acknowledgment of noteworthy issues with one's practices and interpersonal connections, and a broken passionate reaction. The addictive disorder is a result of the person ingesting a substance, such as alcohol or cocaine, or engaging in an activity, like gambling, that is pleasurable but is also compulsive and interfering with the person's responsibilities at home or at work. The person usually is not aware of their out of control behaviour. Without treatment or not involving in recovery exercises, may lead to disability or early death.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is a form of psychotherapy or talk therapy in which the therapist (mental health counsellor or psychotherapist) and the patient work together as a team to identify and deal with the problems by changing the way of thinking and the behaviour. The therapy is based on the interconnection among thoughts, feelings, actions and physical sensation as it is said: “What you think is how you act”. Most commonly, this therapy is prescribed for anxiety and depression but is also useful for other mental and physical health problems. Cognitive-behavioural therapy is action-oriented, rational, and practical and talks about your current issues rather than the data from the past, thus, improving the state of mind on a daily basis. It is short-term focused psychotherapy appropriate for all ages, including children, adolescent, and adults.
Psychiatric nursing or mental health nursing is the specialty of nursing specializing in mental health. They care for people of all ages with mental illness or mental distress, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychosis, depression or dementia. They expertize on building therapeutic relationship between the patient and doctor, trained for psychological therapies, highly able to deal with the challenging behaviours of the patients and are qualified for the administration of psychiatric medicine. Often, people do not consider mental illnesses as true medical conditions by the public. Psychiatric stigmatization is the inappropriate and erroneous association of mental illness with something disgraceful or shameful. Psychiatric nurses help patients to overcome their mental disorders and the stigma associated with it so they can live a better life. Being a mental health nurse can be very rewarding, but it is a stressful and emotionally draining job as well. They often play a significant role in the psychiatric care process.
Psychiatric case reports contain information from and about the patient. It reflects the familiarity of the author with psychiatric technical terms in describing the symptoms, the status and in illustrating the illness. Case report demonstrate that the examiner has basic information’s to express symptoms according the investigation of the patient, is able to make differential diagnosis between separate illnesses and can establish a therapeutic plan.